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Unipolar Depression or Unipolar Disorder occurs when a person loses interest in the activities he or she usually find enjoyable or pleasurable. Unipolar Disorder is distinguished by relentless, rigorous and incapacitating depressive periods of Major Depression or Clinical Depression.

Unipolar DepressionSymptoms in Unipolar Depression appear at spectrum’s one end that is the lower end. People suffering from Unipolar Depressions are not affected by the happy moments of life. They do not respond to happy situations like they should or like other people react in the same situations. The patients of Unipolar Depression usually are indifferent and insensitive to what is happening around them. They do not show feeling of happiness and contentment much. Patients of this disorder undergo many psychological problems and are disturbed in their family, friends and workplace life.

Cause– Main causes of Unipolar Disorder are still yet to be discovered though. But doctors have come up with several causes for this depression- such as genetic predilection, disturbance in neurochemicals and neural circuits in the brain, secondary disruptions which include panic disorder, social anxiety problem and post traumatic stress ailment, or general anxiety disorder.
Symptoms– Unipolar Depression is characterized by over eating or loss of appetite, excessive sleeping or insomnia, feeling of guilt, shame, feeling as if there they are not worthy, lack of concentration, anxiety, sadness, hopelessness, decreased sexual desire and activity, low self-esteem, pain in the body, irritability, apathetic behavior, aches, inability to make decisions, withdrawal from family or social life, persistent fatigue, and thoughts about death or committing suicide. People become obsessed about something, either it be watching Television for long period of time, listening to music or might just be sitting and staring at the wall. If these signs continue for more than a two week period, people are then diagnosed with major depressive disorder.

Diagnosis– Unipolar Depression is diagnosed by doctors or psychiatrists by performing mental as well as physical assessments on patients. Doctors carry out these assessment tests to ensure that there is no other mental ailment such as Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, or Sleeping or Eating Disorder. Severe cases of Unipolar Depression can not be diagnosed or treated by doctors.

Prevention– Unipolar Depressions can be prevented or avoided to an extent if you want to. You can get rid of depression by sitting at home! Exercising everyday or performing yoga reduces mental stress and tension and thus, will help prevent Unipolar depression. If you take your medications on time and correctly, then Unipolar Depression can be avoided. Unipolar Depression is also largely reduced by talking to a friend or love one and sharing all your sorrows, pain and agony. It is proven by research that Unipolar Depression is lessened to a great extent by blurting everything out instead of keeping it inside you; share your feelings with a person whom you can trust.

Alcoholic drugs or nicotine can be dangerous if you are suffering from this ailment. Avoid taking these illegal drugs as far as you can because these drugs may damage your nervous system and make your brain stagnant to not thinking much. Also try to work for others! The busy you keep yourself, the less Unipolar depression you will have to handle with. Start doing social work and volunteering and participate in group activities to interact with people to avoid Unipolar Depression. It is important to watch out for premature symptoms of Unipolar Depression and learn how to handle them, so that you can stop such a depression from getting worse. Ultimately, try to get good sleep everyday and take part in activities that you once liked.

Complications– If Unipolar Depression is not treated accurately and recovery is incomplete other serious issues can come into existence, although Unipolar Depression’s symptoms had completely gone away. These include irritable mood, hypochondriacal concerns and relationship problems. Other problems may also include physical diseases.
The patients of this type of Unipolar Depression are known as masked depressives. These patients may go on with everyone happily and communicate well with every person, but they are still suffering from the depression deep down inside.

Other issues– Individuals suffering from Unipolar Depression can lead to severe other problems. These problems are issues with mental and physical health, demise of premature babies due to medical ailment of mothers, increased consumption of alcohol and drug addiction, addiction to tobacco and nicotine products, and suicides. 15% of the people suffering from Unipolar Depressions commit suicide.
Treatment- Unipolar Depressions can be treated by family therapies, couple therapies, and medications such as Antidepressions which include SSRIs, MAQIs and Tricclics, Psychotherapy, hospitalization and Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in worst cases.


MediLexicon’s Medical Dictionary states depression as “a chronic mental disorder distinguished by feelings of loneliness, sadness, low self-esteem, despair, and self-reproach”. Additional symptoms include withdrawal from social contact, psychomotor retardation (or less frequently agitation), and vegetative conditions such as loss of appetite and sleeplessness. It is a state in which we suffer low mood and loathe every activity.

Depression is of three types:

  • Major depression
  • Clinical depression
  • Recurrent depressive disorder

Major depression
depressionMajor depression is also called Major depressive disorder or unipolar depression. Unipolar means one pole or one severe depressed mood. 33% of people actually seek out help for Major Depression.
Symptoms- Major depression affects a person’s family and or social life. It also impacts sleeping and eating habits. People start disliking the things that they once found enjoyable.
Percentage of people affected-Women are affected by major depression twice as much as men. This is due to the fact that women are psychologically emotional and tend to take everything to heart. Major depression is prevalent in the age group of 25-44 years in both males and females, and is uncommon in people of age over 65 years. Major depression affects women about 10% to 25%, while it only affects 5%-12% of men in their lifetime.
Major depression can affect a person of any age group; however, it seriously affects the people who are in their mid 20s. People who are most likely to suffer from major depression are those who have someone in their immediate family, suffering from this ailment.
Treatment- Sometimes anti depression medications such as Paxil or Efexor may be prescribed to ease the affects of Major depression. In other cases, group therapies with individuals having the same problems can assist you in getting rid of depression.
Recovery is rapid for patients of major depression and 2/3rd of such patients recover entirely. Others might not recover at all or recovery is partial. A research has calculated that 10%-25% of people who go through major depression in their life are those who have dysthymia before. If dysthymia and major depression are found in an individual at the same time, this means he is suffering from ‘double depression’. Such individuals have lesser chance of full recovery and have to be taken care of in time.

Clinical Depression
According to American Psychiatric Association, every year 17 million Americans are affected with Clinical Depression. According to Michigan University of Researchers, 15% of college students suffer from clinical depression during their time in school. It is very common but most of the times, it is not treated as people fail to recognize its symptoms.
Clinical Depression is a brain disorder characterized by constant state of sadness and loss of interest in one’s pleasurable activities. It is different from being depressed which is another way of saying you are feeling down.
Symptoms –Symptoms of Clinical Depression include loss of appetite, feeling of guilt or anxiety, extreme fatigue, lack of motivation, and thoughts of death or suicide.
Percentage of people affected-During adolescence, clinical depression affects both boys and girls alike. 5%-9% females and 2%-3% males are suffering from clinical depression at a particular point in time.
Clinical Depression can just not go away. People suffering from Clinical depression can not do anything for themselves in order to make them feel good. They are personally weak and do not want any one to help them anyhow. This ailment usually goes on for weeks or months, or even years sometimes. Clinical Depression can lead to suicide also. Clinical Depression is of many types and divided into many levels.
Treatment- Clinical Depression is treated by many psychiatrists and mental health counselors. If treated at the right time, patients facing it may get better in a few months or just in a couple of weeks.

Recurrent depressive disorder
Recurrent depression means that you are suffering from more than one depressive disorder at a time, it happens when depression has reoccurred. It is a type of Major Depression in which depressive episodes occur frequently. In between the depression episodes, individuals do not experience any signs at all.
Recurrent Depressive Disorder can make a person suffer from it for a whole entire lifetime.
Symptoms- Symptoms of Recurrent Depressive Disorder include many depressive episodes with breaks of no depression in between.
Treatment- The treatment with lithium is a good way of getting rid of Recurrent Depressive Disorder and lessens the risk of suicidal attempts. Maintenance therapy is designed to treat patients of Recurrent Depressive Disorder. Therapies such as psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy dosage and electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) can help a patient recover from Recurrent Depressive Disorder.

Viral STDs

The rate of sexually transmitted diseases caused by viruses is very high. Viral STDs are commonly caused by oral, anal or vaginal contact and sharing of bodily secretions from one individual to another. Most STDs are incurable, but viral STDs can usually be prevented by the use of condoms. Hepatitis is also one of the most important kinds of Viral STD.
Hepatitis is usually caused by different kinds of viruses. Hepatitis is of following types:

  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis D
  • Hepatitis E
  • Herpes simplex
  • Human Papilloma Virus
  • Molluscum contagiosum

Some of the most common are described in detail as follows:

Hepatitis A
CirrhosisHepatitis A is an acute inflammation of the liver, previously known as infectious hepatitis. Hepatitis A is transferred from one individual to another. It is mainly spread by direct contact with an infected person, or by ingestion of infected water or food. By coming in contact with contaminated blood or stool or oral, anal or vaginal sex with an infected person can cause Hepatitis A. 3600 people are diagnosed with Hepatitis A each year.
Cause- The cause of Hepatitis A is the hepatitis A virus.
Symptoms- Hepatitis A symptoms are mild which includes fatigue, nausea, yellow skin (jaundice), appetite loss, itching, dark urine, clay or pale colored stools and low-grade fever. Signs of Hepatitis A usually appear after 2-6 weeks of being infected by Hepatitis A virus.
Treatment- There is no precise treatment for Hepatitis A. People suffering from chronic hepatitis A should avoid alcohol, fatty foods or toxic substances that are contagious for the liver; they should also eat a balanced diet and stay hydrated. To prevent complications associated with Hepatitis A, therapy is given by agents such as Analgesics, Antiemetics, and Immune globins.
Complications-One in a thousand cases of Hepatitis A becomes infected by fulminant hepatitis which is lethal.

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Virus is transmitted from one individual to another via unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal sex with an infected person. It is also transferred by the use of contaminated hypodermic syringes used to inject drugs and also from a mother to her infant during vaginal delivery and breast feeding. Hepatitis B virus is present in vaginal secretions, semen, breast milk and semen. It is not transferred from one person to another through everyday contact of shaking hands, hugging, by touching door knobs, sharing utensils, and sitting on public toilets or by drinking water from the same glass.
Causes- Hepatitis B is caused by Hepatitis B virus which causes inflammation of liver called hepatitis.
Symptoms- Hepatitis B is characterized by fever, loss of appetite, aches and fatigue which are the signs of mild flu. While some people will experience no symptoms at all and are asymptomatic .Temporary Jaundice (yellowing of the skin) is also one of the symptoms of Hepatitis B. Excretion of dark urine, pain in the abdominal region and nausea are also signs of Hepatitis B.
Complications- Hepatitis B is a cause of chronic infection, and cancer of the liver and cirrhosis (scarring) in the genital tract.
Treatment- There is no cure for Hepatitis B. But there are certain drugs which can prevent the virus from multiplying and reducing the liver damage. Seven medications have been licensed in the United States for Hepatitis B treatment. These anti viral drugs include adefovir (hepsera), lamivudine (epivir), tenofovir (Viread), Entecavir (Baraclude), telbiyudine( Tyzeka) and modulators of the immune system such as PEGylates interferon alpha 2a(Pegasys) and interferon alpha-2a.

Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is a syndrome which affects the liver. This infection leads to inflammation of the liver. It is usually transmitted by blood to blood contact. 270-300 million people are diagnosed with Hepatitis C each year worldwide.
Cause- The major cause of Hepatitis C is Hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Symptoms- Most patients diagnosed with Hepatitis C are asymptomatic. However symptoms include fatigue, dark urine, nausea, appetite loss, itching, scrapping, jaundice, abdominal swells. These symptoms occur due to ascites fluid, fever, pale or clay-colored stools, or bleeding from esophagus or stomach which is due to dilated veins in stomach called varices or esophagus. Other symptoms are vomiting and abdominal pain.
Prevention- Hepatitis C can be prevented by avoiding contact with blood and blood products. The partner should be tested against Hepatitis C before sexual transmissions. Blood should be handled with great care by health care workers. It is very important that contaminated syringes and needles should be discarded immediately. One should also be careful when getting tattoos and body piercing.
Complications- Hepatitis C present in a person for many years can lead to a permanently disfigured and damaged liver, which is known as cirrhosis.
Treatment- Hepatitis C can be treated by pegylated interferon alfa and ribayirin (an antiviral medicine).

Herpes Simplex
Herpes SimplexHerpes simplex is a persistent infection of the skin in which sores appear on the mouth or genitals. Herpes is transferred from one individual to another via physical contact during unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex with an infected person or also by kissing. Herpes can not be transmitted by usual hugging, shaking hands, sharing eating utensils or clothes, sharing food and using public toilets, touching door knobs and drinking from the same glass.
Causes- Herpes simplex is caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2.
Symptoms- Most individuals diagnosed with Herpes simplex are asymptomatic- that is they don’t show any symptoms or they have subclinical herpes. Some signs of Herpes may include some sores, blisters, pimples, rash, bumps, or cutes in either the genital area or the mouth. Herpes is also characterized by burning, itching, tingling, scratching, or tickling feeling in mouth and genital regions.
Prevention- Herpes simplex can be avoided y several ways. The use of condoms can lessen the risk of getting Herpes by 50%. Suppressive antiviral therapy also reduces the risk to half. However, condom usage is more efficient for preventing females from getting Herpes Simplex as compared to males.
Treatment- There is no cure yet found for Herpes. Antiviral medications are used to decrease occurrence of outbreaks and increase the rate of healing.

In 2009, AVERT estimated that there are 3.3 million people suffering from HIV/AIDS worldwide, with 2.6 million new HIV patients each year and 1.8 million annual deaths due to HIV/AIDS. This Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the major cause of AIDS (Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV/AIDS is an infection of the immune system which weakens the ability of human body to fight infections and make individuals vulnerable to opportunistic infections, cancers and tumors.
HIV is transmitted through unprotected anal, oral and vaginal sex with an infected person. It is also caused by contaminated hypodermic syringes used to insert drugs, blood transfusion, vaginal delivery and breast feeding to infants. HIV is transmitted by direct contact of mucous membrane or body fluid containing HIV, such as blood, vaginal fluid, breast milk, preseminal fluid and semen. Like Herpes Simplex, HIV is not caused by casual contact with others.
Symptoms- HIV/AIDS patients also show no symptoms and are asymptomatic. The symptoms of AIDS are of other syndromes such as cancer or opportunistic infection. These signs are chills, sweat, chronic fatigue, fever, weariness, diarrhea, weight loss, loss of appetite, inflamed lymph nodes, skin sores, ever lasting sore throat, yeast infections, and joint and muscle ache.
Prevention- HIV/AIDS can be prevented by using both male and female condoms. To avoid getting HIV/AIDS by contaminated blood, individuals should use masks, gloved, protective shields or eye ware, aprons and gowns so that skin or mucous membranes do not come in contact with infected blood. Washing hands after dealing with contaminated blood or other body fluids lessen the chance of getting HIV/AIDS. Needles and syringes should be disposed right after their use to help save oneself from getting infected.
Complications- HIV/AIDS cause opportunistic infections which include Kaposi’s sarcoma, tuberculosis, cancer, Herpes Simplex disease, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and meningitis.
Treatment- HIV/AIDS is not curable. Some dugs, however, can allow infected people to live a longer life such as cocktails.

Human Papilloma Virus
Human Papilloma VirusHPV- Human Papilloma Virus is transmitted from one individual to another through sexual contact with an infected person or during vaginal delivery from mother to an infant. It affects the anogenital region. Approximately there are 100 strains of HPV. Genital warts are also caused by Human Papilla Virus. These warts grow on vagina, cervix, vulva, urethra, anus, penis or scrotum regions. HPV can also be transmitted when no warts are present.
Symptoms- HPV is also an asymptomatic infection, i.e. the people infected with it experience no signs at all, or warts may appear in cervix or other regions they can not see. These warts are usually of whitish or flesh colored.
Prevention- HPV can be avoided by the use of condoms. Vaccines such as Gardasil and Cervarix can also be used to prevent Human Papilloma virus from spreading.
Complications- Human Papilloma Virus cause abnormal growth of cells on the cervix, leading to cervical cancer, and “high risk” HPV are also a cause of precancerous lesions and invasive cancer.
Treatment- Like other viral ailments, HPV is also not curable. These viruses disappear by themselves in 90% of the cases within two years.

Protozoal STDs

The only infection caused by protozoan in Human beings is Trichomoniasis.

TrichomoniasisTrichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease usually known as ‘trich’. It affects both males and females worldwide. Trichomoniasis is usually transferred from one individual to another via oral, anal, or vaginal sex. However, it can also spread via close contact with wet infected surfaces such as towels, clothes, toilet seats, or bed sheets. Trichomoniasis can also spread through use of used condoms.
Approximately 7.4 million people usually women are diagnosd with Trichomoniasis each year around the globe. It is prevalent all across the globe. Trichomoniasis is the most easily preventable and treatable disease. Trichomoniasis is an infection of urogenital tract affecting urethra, vagina, vulva, vaginal wall, in females and urethra in males.
Cause- Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of Trichomoniasis. This protozoan is a single celled or unicellular protozoan parasite that produces mechanical stress on the cells of the host and also ingests cell fragments after the demise of cells. Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated motile parasite. A trichomonad is 15mm in length and we can only view it under a microscope. It replicates or reproduces every eight to twelve hours.
Symptoms- Men are asymptomatic to this syndrome that is they do not show any symptoms or signs of Trichomoniasis. They can keep the parasite in their body for years without displaying any signs (dormant).

However, men may show signs of Trichomoniasis sometimes which are as follows:
• Burning Sensation after urinating or ejaculation
• Irritation and itching in the penis
• Mild discharge
• Irritation inside the genital tract
• Soreness of the genital tract
• Swelling and pain in the scrotum (from epididimytis)
After infection, if symptoms appear, they usually take four to twenty days to appear, as it is the incubation period.

One third of the women also show little or no symptoms of Trichomoniasis. Symptoms that are significant in women and generally appear within 5 to 28 days of the infestation of Trichomonas vaginalis; and include the following.
• Inflammation of the vagina(vaginitis)
• Irritation or Inflammation of the cervix(cervicitis)
• Swelling or Inflammation of urethra (Urethritis)
The above symptoms are a reason for itching, irritation and a burning sensation. This causes extreme pain in the uogenital region. During sexual intercourse or while urinating, discomfort increases. In some cases, however, a yellowish green, foamy vaginal discharge having a foul odor takes place which itches a lot and also causes a burning sensation. Sometimes abdominal pain may as well occur in women.
Complications- If not treated on time; Trichomoniasis can lead to increased risk of getting HIV/AIDS. Trichomoniasis during pregnancy can lead to the birth of a premature or low-birth-weight child. Increased risk of cervical cancer is another complication. Trichomoniasis is also a cause of prostate cancer in men which spreads due to inflammation when prostatitis develops and affects the prostate gland.
Prevention- The best way to avoid Trichomoniasis is to use male latex condoms. Trichomoniasis can also be prevented by following hygiene practices and by safe sex. One should wash hands before and after sexual intercourse, take a shower right after swimming in a public pool, and avoid sharing towels or swimsuits.

Treatment- Trichomoniasis is treated in a variety of ways
1. Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Metronidazole (2000mg) is used to treat Trichomoniasis in both pregnant and non-pregnant patients. When taking a high dose of Metronidazole you must be careful about the risks or side effects attached to it, which includes vomiting or nausea. Pills should be taken for seven days twice daily. One should avoid drinking alcohol while taking Metronidazole because it augments the chances of vomiting and pain in the abdominal region. Metronidazole is taken with other antibiotics to receive the full treatment.
2. Clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin, Mycelex-7)
This medicine is only used for pregnant patients who are showing symptoms. Clotrimazole is placed in the vagina of the infected person for 14 days. Usage of Clotrimazole reduces the symptoms of Trichomoniasis but does not cure the ailment more than 20%. It is used in first trimester during pregnancy and is applied topically.
3. Partners
Male sex partner usually show little or no symptoms of Trichomoniasis at all and are asymptomatic, but it does not mean that they should not be tested for this infection. They should be evaluated and if found infected, should take metronidazole for 7 days at least.

Although Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite which infects both males and females similarly, but more than one half of the infected men naturally get rid of the parasite in maximum 14 days, while in women Trichomoniasis remains persistent until treated.

Parasitic STDs

Technically speaking all bacterial, viral and fungal infections are parasitic diseases. But for convenience and enhancements in medical technologies, virus, bacteria and fungus are divided into their own families with respect to their similar characteristics and behaviors.

Parasites STDs include Crab louse (Phthirius pubis) and Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei).

ScabiesScabies is derived from Latin word Scabere which means ‘to scratch’. It was colloquially known as seven-year itch. It is an infectious skin disease among Homo sapiens. Scabies is transmitted from one person to another by anal, oral or vaginal sex and by close contact such as sharing clothing, bedding, and towels. It is also spread via physical contact including kids playing together.
Cause- The main cause of scabies is the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, which resides under the skin of the host where it lays its eggs. This parasite is not visible by naked eye as it’s very tiny. This parasite is also found in the genital region and other parts of the body such as wrists, abdomen, breast, thighs, buttocks, ankles, or fingers.
Symptoms- Signs of Scabies include intense irritation and severe itching especially at night, rashes in the affected area. Symptoms of Scabies are various allergies and re-infection may make the symptoms obvious within 24 hours.
Complications- If Scabies became severe; it results in Norwegian Scabies (now known as Crusted Scabies). It is an extreme form of scabies which is linked with immune suppression.

Prevention- There is no vaccine for Scabies. But you can avoid getting scabies on an individual scale by washing every piece of clothing that comes in contact with the infected person.
Treatment- Scabies can be efficiently treated by a wide variety of medicines including Permethrin cream which is the most efficient treatment as compared to others. It can be treated by Ivermectin- which is a topical medicine and can be used orally, and Crotamiton- which is nontoxic and comforting. Precipitates sulfur suspended in petroleum jelly is used for the treatment of pregnant women and two months and under babies. You can also treat your own self against Scabies by not scratching unnecessarily because too much scratching breaks the skin and cause infection. Washing every thing that comes into contact with the infected person is also a preventive measure.

Crab louse
Crab LouseCrab louse is a parasite which is spread from one person to another through contact with an infected person, or sweat of the patient. It is also transmitted by sharing bedding, clothing or blankets with the infected person. Crab louse is transmitted by sexual contact most of the time.
Cause- Public lice or Phthirius pubis is a cause of Crab louse. These insects suck human blood and bite for that. They are 1-2mm in size and are found in public regions of the infected person and can also spread to almost anywhere on the skin where hair growth is rapid such as armpits, eyelashes and also chest. They are also known as blood feeding parasites. The parasites lay eggs which are 1mm in size (length) and they stick to an individual hair of a person. These nits require heat of our body to hatch which takes approximately seven to ten days. Lice go through many immature stages before turning into a complete adult.

Symptoms- Symptoms of Public Lice involves extreme itching and inflammation especially at night. Main sign is itching particularly in the public-hair area, which is a result of hypersensitivity to saliva of the louse. Itching frequently occurs in the mons area, which is the fat pad of skin and hairs on top of the public bone. This louse saliva can become stronger with time, especially when the lice invade the human body. Maculae Caeruleae, which is a state of coloration or characteristically blue or grey in color, appears in the area where lice feed their children, i.e. feeding site.

Treatment- Crab lice is treated with Permethrin cream or Pyrethrin cream. These are applied in the infected areas, and then washed after ten minutes. After that shaving off the hairs or combing the hairs in the infected areas with a fine-toothed comb is essential so that lice and nits are completely removed. This treatment is to be repeated after ten days. Bed sheets should also be changed after the treatment to avoid further reproduction of crab lice that might have been left on the sheets during treatment and can lead to reinvasion after 15 days. These sheets should be discarded by shutting them up in a plastic bag without air. Sexual partners of the infected person should receive treatment for Crab lice as well.

Obesity surgery

weight lossBariatric is the study of obesity and Bariatric surgery is a surgery for obesity or weight loss. People who are overweight and can not loose weight by exercising or lessening their diet have to go through a series of clinical procedures to loose weight. Gastric banding, which is an implanted medical device, is used to decrease the size of the stomach; or sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch assists in removing a portion of the stomach; or the small intestines are resected to a small stomach pouch known as gastric bypass surgery.

According to U.S National Institutes of health, a person with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 40 is recommended to receive a bariatric surgery.
According to the medical guidelines provided by the American College of Physicians, it was concluded that obesity surgery is recommended for patients of 40kg/m2 as advised by the U.S National Institute of health. As exercising is not showing any positive results, these individuals are suffering from many diseases due to obesity. These patients suffer co morbid conditions including impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipedemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus. Also, patients should be treated in high-volume centers with expert surgeons in obesity surgery.

Obesity surgery is classified into the following procedures:

  • Predominantly mal absorptive procedures
  • Predominantly restrictive procedures
  • Mixed procedures

Predominantly mal absorptive procedures
Predominantly mal absorptive procedures create mal absorption and lessen the size of the stomach. Predominantly mal absorptive procedures are further divided into:
o Biliopancreatic diversion- It is also known as Scopinaro procedure. Problems of malnourishment are a part of Biliopancreatic diversion due to which its original form is not performed much. 2% of the patients going through the procedure of Biliopancreatic diversion suffer severe nutritional deficiency and mal absorption, and hence require reestablishment of the normal absorption. Patients who go through this surgery must have a diet consisting of dietary minerals and vitamins than what normal people take. If these nutrients are not taken in the diet, serious deficiency disorders like osteoporosis and anemia can occur.
o Jejunoileal bypass- The procedure of Jejunoileal bypass is no longer in existence. It was performed in the 1950s to 1970s in which the small bowel was detached from the body.
o End luminal sleeve- A study was carried out in Chile to examine the effects of End luminal sleeve on human beings by blocking absorption of food in the upper jejunum and duodenum. However, it was not successful and did not yield any optimistic results.

Predominantly restrictive procedures
Bariatric SurgeryPredominantly restrictive procedures are used to reduce ingestion of food by lessening the gastric volume and leaving the alimentary canal to work with the same way as before. They also reduce the risk of complications of metabolism. Predominantly restrictive procedures are divided into:
o Vertical banded gastroplasty- This procedure of predominantly restrictive procedures is also called stomach stapling. A small stomach pouch is produced by the use of staples and bands. There is roughly a one-centimeter hole which helps to push the contents of pouch in the remaining area of the stomach and then into the gastrointestinal tract.
o Adjustable gastric band- This procedure involves restricting the stomach through the use of silicone band, which can be attuned by the adding or removing of saline via a port which is placed right under the skin. Adjustable gastric band is also called lap band because it can be performed laparoscopically.
o Sleeve gastrectomy- Gastric sleeve or Sleeve gastrectomy is a procedure of obesity surgery in which size of the stomach is lessened to 15% of its initial size. This is also done laparoscopically by removing a huge portion of stomach and also the major curve through a surgery. The open edges of the stomach are further attached together either by use of surgical sutures, staples or both, in order to make stomach look like a sleeve, or a tube which is banana shaped.
o Intragastric balloon (Gastric balloon) – The procedure of Intragastric balloon or Gastric balloon places a deflated balloon in the stomach; and then the balloon is filled to reduce the amount of gastric space. This balloon is set to stay in the stomach for six month maximum, and is very helpful in weight loss, resulting in loss of 5-9BMI in half a year.
o Gastric Plication- In the process of gastric sleeve or gastric placation, a sleeve is made by suturing only. This prevents the mal absorption.

Mixed procedures
Mixed procedures of obesity surgery are subdivided into:
o Gastric bypass surgery- Common method of Gastric Bypass surgery is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in which a small pouch is created which is further attached to the distal small intestine. This pouch is created by a stapler device. Subsequently, upper region of the small intestine is attached again in a Y-shaped configuration.
o Sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch- In Sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch, some part of the stomach and the great curve of the stomach is resected.
o Implantable gastric stimulation- The procedure of Implantable gastric stimulation is studied in the United States. In this procedure, a device is implanted into the external area of the stomach (surface) which works with the brain by sending electrical signals, and gives a feeling of fullness.

Fungal STDs

Fungal STDs are the most commonly occurring type of STDs but they can be treated very easily if treatment starts at an early age. The fungal STDs can be alleviated or treated with a full course of antifungal topical solutions and creams or a full length course of anti fungal. Fungal STDs are transmitted from one individual to another through oral, vaginal or anal sex. Physical contact such as touching can also be a cause of fungal STD. The fungal STDs are grown in dark, warm, and moist regions of the genital tract and also in armpits, nipples and mouth as well.

Symptoms of fungal STD include fever, dizziness, vomiting, chills, diarrhea, cramps and muscle aches.

Even after fungal STD is treated, one needs to go see a doctor to verify the diagnosis-the earlier the better. Also, one needs to complete the full course of treatment. If you stop in the middle of the treatment, when the fungal infection symptoms are no longer, it can leave you with a resistant damage of fungus, which may become impossible to get rid of.

There are two types of Fungal STDs:

Tinea Cruris
Tinea CrurisTinea Cruris, commonly known as Jock Itch is a dermatophyte fungal disease of the groin region. It is also called crotch itch, gym itch, eczema marginatum, crotch rot and ringworm of groin in American English. Tinea Cruris is mostly seen in men as compared to women.
Cause- The main cause of Tineas Cruris is wet and temperate environment because it enhances the growth of Tinea pedis fungus. Sweaty, tight, ruby or wet clothing in summer or wearing many layers of clothes in winter creates moist environment and thus gives a chance for such a fungus to grow, therefore, causing Tinea Cruris. Other fungi that can also be a cause of Tinea Cruiris are Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Symptoms- Jock Itch, as the common name indicates, causes a burning or itching feeling in the skin of groin, skin folds of thigh or anus. Itching may continue in the inner thigh area, genital areas and also in the perianal and perineum regions. The above areas show tan, red, brown, peeling, cracking, swelling, detaching, and flaking skin.
Treatment- As Tinea Cruris is an ailment of the top layer of the skin therefore it is best treated with topical ointments, creams and lotions, such as tolnaftate (Tinactin), Clotrimazole (Lotrimin), Miconazole (Micatin), or antifungal medications of azole o allylamine type. These creams should be used two times a day for at least two weeks for complete removal of Tinea Cruris. If the hives are very red and also itchy with severe swellings, glucocorticoid stereiods such as hydrocortisone cream may be applied too. The above agents stop the fungi from producing a substance known as ergosterol, which is an effective component of Tinea pedis cell membrane.
Avoidance- Tinea Cruris can be prevented by avoiding:

  • The sharing of towels or washcloths
  • Wearing loose clothes that keep the moister away and prevent you from getting sweaty such as cotton and synthetic materials
  • Using antifungal sprays or powders once a day and allowing the groin to get dried completely before wearing clothes or after a shower.

CandidiasisCandidiasis is commonly known as a yeast infection. It starts from external symptoms such as oral thrush and vaginitis to methodological and life threatening mycosis. It is also known as candidosis, moniliasis or andoidiomycosis. Candidiasis can be divided into Antibiotic candidiasis (latrogenic candidiasis), candidid,systematic candidiasis, erosion interdigitalis blastomycetica, candidal paronychia, perianal candidiasis, congential cutaneous candidiasis, candidal vulvovaginitis, perleche (angular cheilitis), candidal intertrigo, oral candidiasis (thrush) and diaper candidiasisu.

Cause- Candidiasis is usually caused by yeast known as Candida albicans, of the Candida genus. It is a fungal infection which can be caused by any of the species of yeast too.
Symptoms- Major symptoms of Candidiasis include burning, swelling, soreness and irritation of the reproductive region.

  • In women with a genital mycosis, itching, burning, flaking or redness of vagina or vulva areas are common. In addition, a cottage cheese like whitish to off-whitish or whitish grey discharge which is like a curd may be present.
  • In men with genital Candidiosis, burning, itching and swelling occurs around the genital area, usually on head or tip of penis. In addition, men also experience a whitish to off-whitish discharge which smells like yeast but it is not compulsory. However, the symptoms are not as visible in men as in women.

Treatment- Candidiasis is usually treated with antifungal drugs such as topical clotrimazole, topical nystatin, fluconazole and topical ketoconazole. In severe infection, amphoteririn B, casopofungin or voriconazole are also used.

Bacterial STDs

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) belongs to prokaryotes and are unicellular microorganisms which only reproduce in the body of hosts. Bacteria are the cause of major ailments in Homo sapiens. Bacterial sexually transmitted diseases are also the most common form of STDs and the easiest to get treated too. A minor antibiotics course can assist to get rid of this disease.

There are several types of Bacterial STDs:

  • Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
  • Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
  • Syphilis( Treponema pallidum)
  • Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
  • Granuloma inguinale (Klebsiella granulomatis)

Some of the above diseases are described in detail below:

Chancroid infectionChancroid is a sexually transmitted disease of the genital ulcer caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. This bacterium is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium that does not preserve crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. Although this disease is not widespread in the United States, it is prevalent in the developing countries of the world.

Symptoms- Chancroid begins as an erythematous papular lesion that severs down into a sore bleeding ulcer through a necrotic base and ragged edge. Other symptoms include multiple pustules that rapidly break to form ulcers, yellow secretions, at the base of the vagina or penis covered with a yellowish or grey material, and sensitive base that bleeds easily if banged or scraped. The infection is spread via being in contact with an infected person through vaginal, anal or oral sex, and is resistant to condoms.

Possible complications- Complications consist of urethral fistulas and scars on the foreskin of the penis, vulva or anus in uncircumcised males. It may also cause swelling, and inflammation of the lymph nodes in the groin.

Other issues/problems- Patients with Chancroid should also be checked for HIV AIDS, genital herpes and syphilis because the open sores caused by this disease augment the risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV AIDS.

Treatment- The syndrome is easily treated with antibiotics, including ceftriaxone, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, macrolide, and erythromycin. Outsized lymph node swelling needs to be drained with a needle or local surgery.

GonorrheaGonorrhea is a common ailment in United States which affects 700,000 people a year. It was once known as “clap”, and it is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This bacterium is also a Gram negative bacterium which means its growth rate is very rapid. It is a diplococcic bacterium which grows in moist, temperate areas of the reproductive area which include the uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes in women and urethra in both the sexes. This contagious bacterium is very likely to grow in the mouth, throat or anus. The disease is passed on through cervical or vaginal secretions during vulnerable oral, anal or vaginal sex with an infected person.

Symptoms- Half of the women suffering with gonorrhea are asymptomatic and subclinical carriers. While the other half of women suffer from vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and pain during intercourse. However most men suffer from asurethritis allied with a burning sensation during urination, and discharge from the urethra. The incubation period is 2 to 30 days where symptoms occur between 4-6 days after being infected.

Complications- It can cause bleeding between periods, and increased discharge from the vagina in females, and affects the testicles in males. It is also a root cause of a disseminated infection which happens when bacteria enters into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, which further causes fever, chills, skin blistering, and joint pain.

Other issues/problems- If it is not treated properly, gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women and epididymitis in men, which causes complications of infertility and pregnancy in women.

Treatment- It is treated with a variety of antibiotics. In the past fluoroquinolone was used to treat Gonorrhea but as more and more people are becoming resistant to it in the United States, other drugs are now substituted for it such as cephalosporins, erythromycin, pencillin or ceftriaxone.


SyphilisSpirochetal bacteria, Treponema pallidum(subspecies pallidum) is the reason of causing Syphilis in human beings. The prime cause of this disease is sexual contact; however it is also transmitted from mother to child during birth causing congenital syphilis.

Symptoms- The common symptoms are hepatosplenomegaly, rash, fever, neurosyphylis, pneumonitis, fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and tiredness.

Other issues/problems- If it remains untreated, it can cause saddle nose deformation, Higoumenakis sign, saber shin, or Clutton’s joints.

Treatment- Antibiotics such as intramuscular penicillin are the most effective dose for syphilis. Other medicines include Doxycycline , Ceftriaxone and Tetracycline. However these antibiotics are not as safe for pregnant women.


GingivitisGingivitis or inflammation of the gum tissue is a non-detructive periodontal disease which is most commonly in response to bacterial biofilms “plaque” adhearing to teeth surfaces. In the absence of medical treatment, Gingivitis will likely progress to Periodontitis which causes more medical problems as it is a destuctive form of periodontal disease. There are 2 primary categories of Gingival disease:

1) Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases

  • Gingival diseases modified by malnutrition
  • Gingivitis associated with plaque only
  • Gingival diseases modified by medications
  • Gingival diseases modified by systemic factors

2) Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions

  • Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin
  • Gingival diseases of fungal origin
  • Gingival diseases of viral origin
  • Gingival diseases of genetic origin
  • Traumatic lesions
  • Gingival manifestations

Signs & Symptoms of Gingivitis

  • Swollen gums
  • Gums that are tender to touch
  • Gums that are painful to touch
  • Gums that are bright red/purple

Prevention of Gingivitis
Regular oral hygiene including brushing and flossing and also regular checkups with your dental surgeon.

Treatment of Gingivitis

  • Metronidazole
  • Antiseptic Mouthwash
  • Floss
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Rinse
  • Gum Surgery (dental surgeon)
  • Cleaning (dental surgeon)
  • Curettage (dental surgeon)
  • ProxaBrush

Gingivitis complications

  • Tooth loss
  • Recurrence of gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • Infection in the jaw bones
  • abscess in the jaw bones
  • Trench mouth


PeriodontitisPeriodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the tissue surrounding and supporting your teeth, it also involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around your teeth. If Periodontitis is left untreated it can lead to the subsequent loss of your teeth.

Periodontitis is caused by micro-organisms that grow on your tooth’s surface but is amplified by your bodies aggressive immune response to the micro-organisms. The seven categories of periodontal diseases and conditions are:
Chronic periodontitis
Aggressive periodontitis
Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis
Abscesses of the periodontium
Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions

Periodontitis Severity
Severe: ≥ 5 mm of attachment loss
Moderate: 3–4 mm of attachment loss
Mild: 1–2 mm of attachment loss

Cause of Periodontitis
gingiva (gum tissue)
cementum, (outer layer of the roots of teeth)
alveolar bone (sockets into which teeth are anchored)
periodontal ligaments (PDLs)

Management of Periodontitis
Initial Therapy
Dental Surgery
Alternative treatments

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